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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

API Gravity

An arbitrary measure established by the American Petroleum Institute to specify the weight of crude oil per unit volume. It relates specific gravity as follows:

ĚŠAPI = (141.5/specific gravity) – 131.5

10 ĚŠAPI oil has a specific gravity of 1.0, the same as water.

Note: API gravity is not viscosity. Heavy (low API number) crude oils tend to be high viscosity; however, viscosity must be known for pump and driver sizing.

Artificial Lift

The use of any of the following to lift oil that has naturally flowed to the well bore:

Gas Lift

Gas injection into the well.

Sucker-Rod Pumping

A “string” of rods reciprocated by a balance-beam surface mechanism to bring oil up, using a system of check valves on the end of the string at the bottom of the well.

Associated Gas

Gas produced in conjunction with the normal or intended production of crude oil.

B

BS&W (basic sediment & water)

Present in most crude oil, BS&W is an emulsion of oil, water and sediment. Most crude oil purchasers specify the maximum BS&W content that they will accept, usually only a small fraction of 1 percent, although BS&W up to 3 percent is common for transport.

C

Centrifuge Tube Collar

A plastic ring that rests on top of a shield to prevent a centrifuge tube from shifting during centrifugation.

Centrifuge Tube Cushion

a plastic piece that rests inside of a shield to secure the tip of a centrifuge tube in place and protect the tube from shattering when placed inside the shield.

Centrifuge Tube Shield

Aluminum casing that holds a centrifuge tube inside of a trunnion arm

Christmas Tree

The valve manifold at the top of a high-pressure producing well that controls the flow of one or more producing areas from a single well.

Corrosion Test Cylinder

A cylinder used to detect the corrosiveness/sensitivity to copper of gasoline, distillates, fuels, solvents and oils.

D

Deaerator

A vessel found on a LACT unit that removes free air prior to the meter.

Demulsifier

A chemical used to break up and separate emulsions (i.e. crude oil and water).

Down-Hole Pump

A multistage centrifugal turbine or progressive cavity pump located at the bottom of the well that pushes oil up the wellbore. This can be electric, hydraulic or mechanically (using the sucker-rod string) driven.

Dry Block Heater

A type of tube sample heater that uses direct contact with a heated surface to maintain sample temperature.

E

Emulsion

A mixture of fluids, specifically crude oil and water. Usually these emulsions are water in oil. Sometimes, however, they are oil in water, or “reverse emulsions.” Breaking a crude oil emulsion to separate the clean oil requires displacing the emulsifier and its film.This allows the water to coalesce into heavier droplets that can drop out of the oil. Emulsions are very stable and will not usually break by themselves. To separate, emulsions must be heated;chemical additives, electrostatic charging and other techniques can also possibly be used.

EOR (enhanced oil recovery)

See tertiary recovery.

F

FWKO (free-water knockout)

A pressure vessel used to separate free water from degassed crude oil and crude oil-water emulsion. The FWKO is used after the gas separation and before the heater (emulsion) treaters.

G

Gathering

A term used for the pumping service that brings the flows of a number of producing wells together for subsequent pumping into a pipeline.

Gauging Tape

Durable, corrosion-resistant tape with a crank handle used to lower a plumb bob to measure oil level in a tank.

H

Hydrometer

An instrument that measures the relative density or specific gravity of a liquid, typically consisting of a bulb weighted with mercury and a cylindrical stem; the lower the gravity, the deeper the hydrometer sinks.

I

J

K

L

LACT Unit (lease automatic custody transfer unit)

An automatic measuring system used where oil is measured for sale and transfer to a pipeline.

M

N

O

Oil Centrifuge

Equipment that that rotates petroleum liquid samples about a fixed axis to separate oil from water and/or sediment.

Oil Thief

A tool effective in sampling from crude oil tanks at any level of the tank.

P

Pig

A device used to clean the inside of a pipeline or to isolate different products. It resembles a bullet, has an outside diameter about equal to the pipe’s inside diameter and may have scrapers or brushes, to help remove deposits. Pigs are “pumped” through the line and removed at clean-out locations.

Pipeline Service

A pumping service that usually covers distances of 10 to 50 miles(20 to 90 kilometers). Intermediate pumping stations are the normal on long-distance pipelines.

Plumb Bob

A weight with a pointed tip connected to the end of gauging tape to measure oil level in a tank; vertical equivalent of a plumb line.

Primary Recovery

The natural oil-field formation pressure sufficient to force oil to the surface; or the use of artificial lift.

Prover

A unit brought to production fields to confirm meter accuracy,usually once per month. A prover is run in parallel with a meter on a LACT unit.

Q

R

S

Secondary Recovery

Usually refers to water-flooding treatment of the formation, in order to drive reservoir fluids to the well bore.

Sediment

A dispersed solid that exists in crude oil that may take the form of sand, shale, clay or other rock particles.

Separator

A piece of equipment, typically a pressure vessel, used to separate well-stream gas from free liquids.

Shipping

Usually refers to pumping services in which crude oil – with or without water – is pumped (“shipped”) from an offshore platform to onshore facilities, via an underwater pipeline.

Solvent

Aliquid that can dissolve the hydrocarbon portion of crude oil to form a solution; it is added to crude oil to reduce viscosity and promote separation of hydrocarbons from sediment and water.

Sour

Natural gas or crude oil containing relatively large amounts of sulfur or sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S).

Steam Flooding

Steam injected under high pressure. Used when water flooding is ineffective.

Stoddard Solvent

It is a petroleum distillate containing a mixture of hydrocarbons used to promote separation of water from oil during centrifugation.

Sweet

Natural gas or crude oil containing relatively small amounts of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide; sweet natural gas requires minimal purification.

 

Swivel

A mechanical device designed for use on drilling rigs that allows one piece of equipment to rotate while the other remains stationary.

T

Tertiary Recovery

Methods that tend to alter the condition of the crude oil, so that it will flow to the well bore. Included are various chemical and gas injection methods, as well as thermal methods, such as steam injection and in situ combustion.

Toluene

Water-insoluble liquid (benzene derivative) used to promote separation of water from oil during centrifugation.

Trunnion Arm

A mounting plate for centrifuge tubes that connects to the motor shaft and allows for rotation; designed for 2 or 4 tubes.

U

V

W

Water Bath Heater

A tube sample heater that heats water to a preset temperature and the water bath is used to maintain sample temperature.

Water Cut

The percentage of water in crude oil, as it comes from the well. If excessively high, the well may be shut down, due to economics.

Water Flooding

The injection of water – with or without additives – into separate water-injection wells, in order to drive reservoir fluids to the oil-wellbore and improve recovery.

Water Treater

A vessel or series of vessels used to break oil-water emulsions,separating produced water from the crude oil. They are frequently“heater treaters,” which heat the oil-water mixture and use gravity and mechanical methods to break the emulsion.

Wood Back Thermometer

A thermometer anchored to a wooden brace and metallic cup, used for measuring the temperature of oil in a tank.

Woolsey Joint

Rotating connector designed for use on drilling rigs.

X

Y

Z